Surgery is a medical procedure that carries inherent risks and potential complications. While advancements in medical technology and surgical techniques have significantly reduced these risks, it is essential to be aware of the potential complications and make informed decisions before deciding to undergo any form of surgery.


Scarring is a natural part of the body’s healing process following any surgical incision. The appearance and severity of scars can vary widely depending on factors such as skin type, genetics, the location and size of the incision. While most scars fade over time, it is important to discuss potential scarring outcomes with your surgeon before undergoing a procedure.

Bruising and Swelling

Postoperative bruising and swelling are typical, but excessive or prolonged instances can be concerning. Following care instructions, such as elevation, cold compress application, and avoiding strenuous activities, helps minimise these effects.


Pain is an expected side effect after surgical procedures. The intensity and duration of pain can vary based on the type of surgery and the individual’s pain threshold. Surgeons provide guidance on pain management, including prescribed medications and recommendations for rest to minimise discomfort and aid healing.


Infections, though rare, are potential complications of surgery. Symptoms include redness, increased pain, pus formation, and non-healing wounds. While surgeons adhere to strict sterility protocols to mitigate this risk, patients must also follow post-operative care instructions diligently.


Bleeding, both external and internal, can occur as a side effect of surgical procedures. External bleeding is usually evident at the surgical site, while internal bleeding, known as hematoma, may manifest as pain, pressure, or swelling in the affected area.


A seroma, clear lymph fluid accumulation under the skin, is a minor yet possible complication. It occurs when surgery disrupts the lymph vessels, leading to fluid accumulation. Symptoms include increased pain, a feeling of pressure, and a noticeable bump or clear fluid drainage from the surgical site. While seromas are generally minor complications, they may require drainage or additional treatments to facilitate proper healing.

Anaesthetic Complications

Anaesthesia is a crucial component of surgery, ensuring patients are comfortable and pain-free during the procedure. However, it comes with its own set of risks. Allergic reactions, adverse drug interactions, and complications related to the administration of anaesthesia can occur. Your anaesthesiologist will assess your medical history and take necessary precautions to minimise the risks associated with anaesthesia.

Undesirable Cosmetic Outcome

Even with the most skilled surgeons and established medical techniques, there is always a potential risk of an undesirable cosmetic outcome after plastic surgery. This may manifest as asymmetry, puckering of the skin, or results that do not meet the patient’s expectations. It is crucial to have realistic expectations and thoroughly discuss potential outcomes during consultations.┬á

Nerve Damage

Nerve damage is a rare but potential complication of plastic surgery. Symptoms include numbness or tingling, with gradual return of function in most cases. Permanent changes are exceedingly rare.

Bruising and Swelling

After a surgical procedure, it is common to experience some degree of bruising and swelling. While these are normal parts of the healing process, excessive or prolonged bruising and swelling can be concerning. To minimise bruising and swelling, it is important to follow post-operative care instructions, such as elevating the affected area, applying cold compresses, and avoiding strenuous activities.


While extremely rare, the inherent risk of death exists with any surgery. Rigorous pre-operative screenings, updated surgical techniques, and protocols prioritise patient safety.

Minimising Risks and Ensuring Safe Plastic Surgery

While plastic surgery carries inherent risks, there are steps you can take to minimise these risks and ensure a safe surgical experience. Here are some essential considerations:

  • Choose a Qualified and Experienced Plastic Surgeon
  • Assess the Surgical Facility
  • Understand the Procedure
  • Follow Pre and Post-Operative Guidelines
  • Communicate Openly with Your Surgeon
  • Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle
  • Be Realistic

By considering these factors and taking an active role in your own care, you can significantly reduce the risks associated with plastic surgery and enhance the likelihood of a successful and satisfying outcome.

Remember, surgery should always be approached with caution, and the decision to undergo a procedure should be made after careful consideration of the potential risks and benefits.